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Treatment of vascular malformations generally depend upon the type of blood vessels involved and the rate of blood flow within it. This is assessed using Doppler ultrasound, MRI scan and confirmed with angiogram.
The procedure is performed under aseptic conditions in the angiography suite by an interventional radiologist (doctor). During the procedure, local anaesthesia (pain killer) is injected into the skin at the access site to prevent discomfort. An injection of a mild sedative can also be given to ensure that you are comfortable and relaxed during the procedure.
Venous (slow flow) malformations are treated by direct injection of sclerosant medicines into the abnormal network of veins under X-ray guidance using a fine needle. Sclerosants destroy the inner lining of the blood vessel and shuts them down permanently.
Arteriovenous (High flow) malformations are generally treated by blocking the mesh of the blood vessels and the central core (nidus) by injecting them with special liquid agents (glue, OnyX) using a catheter under X-ray guidance. These medicines when injected percolate the fine mesh of blood vessels and solidify within seconds to completely block them.